LANSING, Mich. – Michigan's elections board could deadlock Monday on certifying the state's presidential election results for the first time in history.
By law and practice, certification by the Board of State Canvassers – two Democratic appointees and two Republican ones – is supposed to be a routine signoff. Certification acknowledges that Michigan's unofficial results match the tabulated vote counts. It follows a two-week period of double-checking in Michigan's 83 counties, where some inaccuracies in the unofficial numbers, as is normal, were found and corrected.
But these are not normal times.
The climate is hyper-partisan, disinformation is rampant and President Donald Trump and his team of lawyers are working to overturn election results in Michigan and other states and upend Joe Biden's victory in the Electoral College, where he rang up 306 electoral votes to Trump's 232.
"This system was set up decades ago, during a time when American politics and Michigan politics were more bipartisan," said David Kimball, a professor of political science at the University of Missouri in St. Louis. By having a bipartisan board carry out the pro forma function of election certification, "it would signal to everyone that both parties believe the results are fair," he said.
"What could go wrong?"
The potential deadlock
The prospect of a deadlock – which is by no means assured at the state level but did occur for a few hours Tuesday at the similarly structured Wayne County Board of Canvassers – has experts questioning whether a four-member board, halved along partisan lines, is workable in a world where Republicans and Democrats disagree not just on policy but on facts.
Some ask whether Michigan's system needs a built-in tiebreaker, as in other Midwest states such as Ohio, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Still others say it is time to take the politics out of election certification, just as Michigan attempted to do with the contentious issue of drawing political boundaries in 2018, when voters created an independent citizen redistricting commission.
"A better model would attempt to displace partisanship altogether rather than build it into the system," said Barry Burden, a political science professor and director of the Elections Research Center at the University of Wisconsin.
At the Michigan Board of State Canvassers, Republican member Norman Shinkle said he has many concerns, ranging from election equipment to the absentee voting process to transparency issues, and he leans toward seeking a delay in certification. Shinkle's wife, Mary, was a Republican poll challenger at the TCF Center in Detroit and signed an affidavit used by the Trump campaign in a federal lawsuit that has been withdrawn.
It would take Shinkle's vote plus one other to delay certification. The other Republican member, Aaron Van Langevelde, has not said how he plans to vote. Van Langevelde, an attorney and former assistant prosecutor in Branch County, works for state House Republicans, whose leader, Speaker Lee Chatfield flew to Washington on Friday with a handful of other GOP lawmakers to meet at the White House with Trump.
Chatfield and Republican state Senate Majority Leader Mike Shirkey said after the meeting with Trump they had not been "made aware of any information that would change the outcome of the election in Michigan," and they intended to follow the normal process.
Saturday, Ronna McDaniel, chair of the Republican National Committee and a Michigan resident, and Laura Cox, chair of the Michigan Republican Party, wrote the board asking it to delay certification for 14 days, pending an audit, citing "procedural and accounting irregularities" such as discrepancies between the number of people recorded as casting ballots at Detroit precincts and the actual number of ballots counted.
Election officials said poll book imbalances are not uncommon in precincts across Michigan and are not evidence of fraud. They typically are the result of human error, such as a reporting oversight when an absentee ballot envelope arrives and is later found not to have a ballot inside.
Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson said post-election audits are planned, including a performance audit in Wayne County, but under Michigan law, such audits can be conducted only after results are certified.
The meeting of the Board of State Canvassers, which votes independently of the Legislature and the governor, is set for 1 p.m. EST Monday and can be viewed on the Facebook page of the Michigan Secretary of State's Office.
If the board does not vote Monday to certify Michigan's election results, legal experts don't expect it will pose a serious threat to appointing the state's presidential electors.
If the board showed no signs of acting to certify, someone would almost certainly sue in the Michigan Court of Appeals, seeking an order requiring the board to do so. Such an order could be appealed to the Michigan Supreme Court.
Once court proceedings are concluded, preferably before Dec. 8, the "safe harbor" date by which Congress is required to accept Michigan's electoral votes, Gov. Gretchen Whitmer would certify the state's 16 presidential electors before the Electoral College convenes Dec. 14.
A costly battle
The delays and costs of a possible court battle point to a weakness in Michigan's system – the lack of a nonlitigious mechanism to break a 2-2 deadlock, said John Fortier, director of governmental studies for the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington.
"Probably it is better to have a tiebreaker earlier in the system than go to court," Fortier said.
In the Midwest, most officials who serve as tiebreakers are not necessarily nonpartisan or neutral.
In Ohio, the secretary of state, an elected party official, breaks a tie, and that decision is final.
In Wisconsin, the six-member commission is equally divided between Republicans and Democrats, but it is the statutory role of the commission chair – which rotates between the two parties – to certify election results.
In Minnesota, a deadlock is not possible, because the State Canvassing Board has five members. The elected secretary of state serves as board chair and fills out the board by appointing two members of the state Supreme Court and two judges from a district court.
At one time, Michigan's Board of State Canvassers could not have a tie vote. One political party or the other used to have a majority on the board. Contentious recounts in the 1950s led to a constitutional amendment intended to prevent partisanship from interfering with the certification, according to attorney and former Michigan Democratic Party chair Mark Brewer.
Fortier said the idea of policing elections by having the two major political parties watch each other has been central to the U.S. system for more than a century. It goes beyond the certification process to include poll watchers and the fact that in some jurisdictions, two keys – one held by a Republican and one by a Democrat – are required to open doors to rooms where ballots are counted or stored.
"Not having some neutral body that we trust, we actually put the parties there to kind of watch each other," he said. "I do think it's very baked into the system, and it would be very hard to change."
Although the prospect of the Board of State Canvassers failing to certify a presidential vote is new, being paralyzed by 2-2 partisan deadlocks is not.
The board has repeatedly split along partisan lines about certifying ballot proposals before the Michigan Court of Appeals had to step in. Board members' concerns about the quality of the signatures collected for certain petitions have consistently aligned with their partisan views about the proposals themselves.
In 2004, Democratic board members would not vote to certify a proposal defining marriage as a union of one man and one woman or to place Ralph Nader on the ballot as an independent presidential candidate, where he would be more likely to draw votes from the Democratic nominee than the Republican one.
In 2001, Republican members refused to certify a question that would put Michigan's concealed weapons law at risk, and in 2002, the GOP board members forced a deadlock over a proposal to let voters decide whether to spend most of the state's tobacco settlement money on health care and anti-smoking programs.
There have been board of canvassers fights over election results, though not a presidential race.
Generally, Kimball said, partisan gridlock on such boards is mostly a new and growing phenomenon, also seen on similarly structured federal bodies, such as the Federal Election Commission.
"It really speaks to the politics that we're currently in – it's crazy," Kimball said.
Asked to point to a better model, Burden and Kimball pointed to one that no longer exists – in Wisconsin.
That state created a Government Accountability Board in 2008 after a legislative scandal involving lawmakers enlisting state employees to work on political campaigns. The board was composed of six retired judges and counted election certification among its duties.
The board was abolished in 2015 "by Republican lawmakers furious over its role in investigating former Gov. Scott Walker’s 2012 campaign after he was recalled," the Wisconsin State Journal reported.
Burden said certification could be assigned to bodies similar to the redistricting commissions in California that are being developed in Michigan, which have a certain number of members from each party as well as members not affiliated with either party.
Fortier said such bodies can be controversial: Republicans are suspicious of purportedly nonpartisan bodies. "These neutral tiebreakers often take a lot of heat, too," he said.
Follow Paul Egan on Twitter @paulegan4
This article originally appeared on Detroit Free Press: Michigan elections board faces deadlock on certifying Biden win